The 10-year U.S. Treasury bond yield peaked at three.24% final yr on November eight (Fig. 1). When the yield first rose above three% within the earlier May, there was plenty of chatter about how the 10-year was more likely to rise to four% and even 5%. Those forecasts have been primarily based on the widespread notion that President Donald Trump’s tax cuts would increase financial progress, inflation, and the federal deficits.

In addition, the Fed had began to taper its stability sheet throughout October 2017, and was on observe to pare its holdings of Treasurys and mortgage-related securities by $50 billion per thirty days (Fig. 2). It was additionally extensively anticipated that the Fed would hike the federal funds rate 4 occasions in 2018, which is what occurred, and that the rate-hiking would proceed in 2019 into 2020.

Furthermore, the Bond Vigilante mannequin, which correlates the bond yield with the year-over-year progress in nominal GDP, was bearish because the latter rose to five.5% through the third quarter of 2018. (Fig. 3). But as a substitute of shifting larger towards 5.5%, the 10-year yield fell again beneath three%.

What offers? The Dow Vigilantes screamed “no mas” on the Fed over the past three months of 2018, permitting the Bond Vigilantes to take one other siesta. The Fed received the message, and the phrase “gradual” was first changed with the phrase “affected person” to explain the tempo of financial normalization by Fed Chairman Jerome Powell on January four. The two-year Treasury yield, which tends to mirror the market’s year-ahead forecast for the federal funds rate, dropped all the way down to that rate (at 2.38%, the midpoint of the two.25%-2.50% vary) final January three (Fig. 4) and (Fig. 5).

Last yr, I surmised that the bond yield is perhaps “tethered” to the near-zero yields for comparable JGBs in Japan and Bunds in Germany (Fig. 6). I additionally argued that primarily based on 40 years of expertise within the funding enterprise, I’ve by no means discovered that supply-vs.-demand evaluation helped a lot in forecasting bond yields. It’s always been about actual inflation, anticipated inflation, and the way the Fed was probably to answer each. The most up-to-date bond rally was largely pushed by a drop within the anticipated inflation rate embodied within the yield unfold between the 10-year Treasury and the comparable TIPS (Fig. 7). The unfold dropped 30 foundation factors since October 9, 2018 via Wednesday of final week.

Meanwhile, the Treasury yield curve stays flat, with the yield unfold between the 10-year bond and the federal funds rate at simply 36 foundation factors as of late final week (Fig. 8). This means that Powell & Co. might pause rate-hiking for as long as the yield curve unfold stays this near zero. If they increase charges, they threat inverting the yield curve. That would possibly fire up the Dow Vigilantes once more.

Do federal deficits matter to the bond market? Apparently not. Remember, it is all about inflation. If deficits increase inflation, then they may matter.

Ed Yardeni is president of Yardeni Research, Inc., a supplier of world funding technique and asset allocation analyses and proposals. He is the writer of Predicting the Markets: A Professional Autobiography.  Institutional traders might sign-up for a four-week complimentary trial to his analysis service at

More from Ed Yardeni: The U.S. stock market is setting up to gain more than 15% from here in 2019

Plus: How a ‘Fed put’ could leave stock market on path for a ‘late-90s-style meltup’

Also: This market can’t go sideways for long, so get ready for a breakout or breakdown


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